Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone.
The word perfume used today comes from the Latin per fumum, meaning "through smoke." Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians.
The world's first recorded chemist is considered to be a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker who was mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers, oil, and calamus with other aromatics then filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In 2005, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus. Perfumes dating back more than 4,000 years were discovered in an ancient perfumery. At least 60 stills, mixing bowls, funnels and perfume bottles were found in a 43,000-square-foot (4,000 m2) factory. Herbs and spices, like almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin and bergamot, as well as flowers were already being used to make perfume.
The Arab chemist, Al-Kindi (Alkindus), wrote a book on perfumes in the 9th century which he called Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations. It contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, salves, aromatic waters and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The book also described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume making equipment, such as the alembic (which still bears its Arabic name).
The Persian chemist Ibn Sina (also known as Avicenna) introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most commonly used today. He first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes were mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals. Rose water was more delicate and immediately became popular. Both the raw ingredients and distillation technology significantly influenced western perfumery and scientific developments, particularly chemistry.
The art of perfumery has existed in Western Europe since 1221, if we consider the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In 1370, the Hungarians produced a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary, best known as Hungary Water.
The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century, Italian refinements were taken to France by Catherine de' Medici's personal perfumer, Rene the Florentine (Renato il fiorentino). His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulas could be stolen en route.
Thanks to Rene, France quickly became one of the European centres of perfume and cosmetic manufacture. The cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France.
In Germany, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis
created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de
By the 18th century, aromatic plants were being grown in the Grasse region of France, in Sicily, and in Calabria, Italy to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, Italy and France remain the centre of the European perfume design and trade.